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Hybrid Protocols

PELANOR | The Plug

Jun 13, 2023

The Way Forward for Blockchain?

In the ever-evolving landscape of Web3 technology, hybrid blockchains have emerged as a captivating concept, poised to harness the best of both public and private chains. This innovative model promises a plethora of advantages and holds immense potential for diverse industries. Yet, as with any technology, it is crucial to scrutinize the trade-offs it presents.

In this article, we delve into the history of hybrid blockchains, explore real-world implementations, analyze their pros and cons, and shed light on possible avenues for improvement to unleash their true capabilities.

A Brief History

The idea of hybrid blockchains emerged as a direct response to the inherent limitations of public and private blockchains. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, have gained significant popularity for their transparency, immutability, and decentralized nature. However, as the number of transactions on these networks continues to grow, scalability becomes a major hurdle. The limited transaction processing speed and high fees associated with public blockchains have hindered their widespread adoption for certain applications.

On the other hand, private blockchains offer enhanced privacy and control over data, making them suitable for enterprise use cases. These permissioned networks are often deployed within specific organizations or consortia to maintain confidentiality and compliance with regulations. However, the closed nature of private blockchains sacrifices the openness and global consensus that make public blockchains so powerful.

Around 2015, the concept of hybrid blockchains gained traction as researchers and developers recognized the need for solutions that strike a balance between transparency, scalability, privacy, and control. By integrating public and private chains, hybrid blockchains aim to leverage the advantages of both approaches. They seek to combine the transparency, immutability, and decentralized consensus of public blockchains with the privacy, control, and scalability of private blockchains.

The integration of public and private chains in hybrid blockchains allows for a flexible and customizable approach to blockchain implementation. Organizations can have control over their data by utilizing private chains for confidential transactions and sensitive information, while also benefiting from the public chain's network effects and global consensus for secure and transparent interactions.

Five Notable Hybrid Blockchain Systems

  1. Hyperledger Fabric. Hyperledger Fabric, an open-source project under the Linux Foundation, is a leading example of a hybrid blockchain system. It enables businesses to create permissioned networks with customizable levels of privacy, control, and scalability. Fabric supports private channels for confidential transactions, ensuring sensitive information is shared only among authorized participants.

  2. Ripple. Ripple's blockchain network combines public and private elements, making it a hybrid blockchain system. It facilitates fast and secure cross-border transactions by connecting financial institutions through its native cryptocurrency, XRP. While XRP transactions occur on a public blockchain, Ripple's consensus protocol and validation process enable controlled access and regulatory compliance.

  3. Quorum. Quorum, developed by J.P. Morgan, is a hybrid blockchain platform designed for enterprise applications. It combines a permissioned implementation of Ethereum's public chain with a private chain. Quorum's private chain allows for confidential transactions, while the public chain ensures consensus and immutability.

  4. VeChainThor. VeChainThor is a hybrid blockchain platform specifically designed for supply chain management and product authenticity. It integrates public and private elements to enable traceability, provenance, and quality control throughout the supply chain. By combining transparency with privacy, VeChainThor provides a trusted and secure platform for businesses and consumers.

  5. MedicalChain. MedicalChain utilizes a hybrid blockchain to address privacy and data sharing challenges in the healthcare industry. It allows patients to have control over their medical records while enabling secure sharing with healthcare providers. The public blockchain ensures transparency and immutability, while private chains protect sensitive patient information.

The Pros and Cons


  1. Scalability: Hybrid blockchains address the scalability challenges faced by public blockchains by offloading some transactions to private chains, resulting in improved throughput and performance.

  2. Privacy and Control: The inclusion of private chains allows for secure storage and management of sensitive data, ensuring compliance with privacy regulations and giving organizations greater control over their information.

  3. Customization: Hybrid blockchains offer flexibility, enabling organizations to design and configure the private chain to meet their specific requirements while still benefiting from the global consensus and network effects of public chains.

  4. Interoperability: Hybrid blockchains can facilitate interoperability between different blockchain networks, enabling seamless integration and data exchange across various systems.


  1. Increased Complexity: Hybrid blockchains introduce a higher level of complexity compared to single-chain solutions. Managing and coordinating both public and private chains require additional technical expertise and resources. Integration challenges may arise due to differences in consensus mechanisms, protocols, and governance models between the two types of chains.

  2. Potential Security Risks: The integration of public and private chains in hybrid blockchains introduces potential security vulnerabilities. Any weaknesses in either the public or private components could potentially compromise the overall system's security. It becomes crucial to implement robust security measures and conduct thorough audits to mitigate these risks.

  3. Governance Challenges: Hybrid blockchains bring forth governance challenges due to the combination of different chains with potentially varying governance models. Establishing fair and transparent governance mechanisms that involve both public and private chains can be complex. Ensuring consensus among participants from different sectors and addressing conflicts of interest require careful planning and cooperation.

  4. Adoption and Network Effects: Hybrid blockchains may face challenges in gaining widespread adoption and network effects. The success of a public blockchain often relies on a large and active community of participants. The integration with private chains may introduce barriers to entry or limit the number of potential participants, potentially affecting network effects and ecosystem growth.

  5. Regulatory Concerns: The regulatory landscape surrounding hybrid blockchains is still evolving. Different jurisdictions may have varying requirements and regulations for public and private blockchains. The integration of both types of chains may raise regulatory concerns and compliance challenges. Organizations need to navigate these legal complexities to ensure adherence to applicable laws and regulations.

Final Thoughts

Hybrid blockchains are a promising concept to overcome the limitations of public and private blockchains. With a history rooted in the quest for scalability, privacy, and control, they have evolved to offer a path towards more customizable and interoperable systems.

What do you think? Are hybrid protocols the future of blockchain? Tweet us your thoughts @pelanor_

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